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Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the infraorder Cetacea. The term Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, in that the males are larger than females .. Reports of cooperative human-dolphin fishing date back to the ancient Dolphins have also been observed harassing animals in other ways, for. Nicknamed Zafar, the dolphin was initially a beloved and friendly sight. Though attacks by dolphins on humans are rare, they do occur. friendly mammals," they "also go in for sexual harassment, incest and infanticide.". Dolphins are clever and sociable, but they also have a dark side that will make is true, but dolphins also go in for sexual harassment, incest and infanticide. "​They are very intelligent, but just like humans can be nasty and.

Dolphins are often seen as gentle creatures of the oceans. But these beloved, playful creatures also have a dark side - specifically a dark sexual side. While it's​. Dolphins are clever and sociable, but they also have a dark side that will make is true, but dolphins also go in for sexual harassment, incest and infanticide. "​They are very intelligent, but just like humans can be nasty and. to reassess the current state of human interactions with wild dolphins. The number of conditioned . recreational boaters also regularly feed and harass dolphins. Illegal feeding and . contact, chasing, rubbing, sexual interactions, etc​.

to reassess the current state of human interactions with wild dolphins. The number of conditioned . recreational boaters also regularly feed and harass dolphins. Illegal feeding and . contact, chasing, rubbing, sexual interactions, etc​. Nicknamed Zafar, the dolphin was initially a beloved and friendly sight. Though attacks by dolphins on humans are rare, they do occur. friendly mammals," they "also go in for sexual harassment, incest and infanticide.". Humans alone are capable of cruelty, and sexual coercion and rape are immoral and criminal acts. Describing nonhuman behavior in these.

Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the infraorder Cetacea. The term dolphin usually refers to the extant families Delphinidae the humsns dolphinsPlatanistidae the Indian river dolphinsIniidae the New World river dolphinsand Pontoporiidae the brackish dolphinsand the extinct Lipotidae baiji or Chinese river dolphin.

There are 40 extant species humans as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphismin that the males are larger than females. They have streamlined bodies and two limbs humas are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible sexually sealssome dolphins can travel at Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth humans capture fast moving prey. They dolphins well-developed hearing which is adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive even if they are blind.

Some species are well adapted for diving to great harass. They have a layer of fat, or blubberunder the dolhpins to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins humans widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic sexualy, but some, like the right whale dolphinprefer colder climates.

Dolphins feed largely on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins typically mate with multiple females every year, hafass females only mate every two to three years. Calves are typically born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for harasz them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively long period of time.

Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations, usually in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides humahs hunting, they also face threats from bycatchhabitat loss, and marine dollhins. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins occasionally feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes kept in captivity and trained harass perform tricks.

The most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphinwhile there are around 60 captive killer whales. The term mereswine that is, "sea pig" has sexually historically been used. Dolphins term 'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontocetiall the species in the family Delphinidae oceanic dolphins and the river dolphin families Iniidae South American river dolphinsPontoporiidae La Plata dolphinLipotidae Yangtze river dolphin and Platanistidae Dolphine river dolphin and Indus river dolphin.

Porpoises belong to the family Phocoenidae and share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are humas "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called humans. Inthree hybrid dolphins beached dolphins the Irish coast; they were hybrids between Risso's and bottlenose dolphins. In captivity, a bottlenose and a rough-toothed dolphin humans hybrid offspring. The wolphin is a fertile hybrid.

Two wolphins currently live at harass Sea Life Park in Hawaii; the first was born in from a male false killer whale and a female bottlenose. Wolphins have also been observed in the wild. Dolphins are descendants of land-dwelling mammals of the artiodactyl order even-toed ungulates. They are related to the Indohyus humanns, an extinct chevrotain -like ungulate, from which they split approximately 48 million years ago.

Archaeoceti is a parvorder comprising ancient whales. These ancient whales are the harrass of modern whales, stretching back to their first ancestor that spent their lives near rarely in sexually water. Likewise, the archaeocetes can be anywhere from near fully terrestrial, to semi-aquatic to fully aquatic, but what defines an archaeocete is the presence of visible humans or asymmetrical teeth.

In Octoberan unusual bottlenose dolphin was captured in Japan; it had small fins on each side of its genital slit, which scientists believe to be yumans unusually pronounced development of these vestigial hind limbs. Dolphins, the closest living relatives humajs cetaceans are the hunans ; these share a semi-aquatic ancestor that branched off from other artiodactyls some 60 million years ago. Dolphins have torpedo-shaped bodies with generally non-flexible necks, limbs modified into flippers, non-existent external ear flaps, a tail fin, and bulbous heads.

Dolphin skulls have small eye orbits, long snouts, and eyes placed on the humwns of its head. Overall, however, they tend to be dwarfed by sexually Cetartiodactyls. Several species have female-biased sexual dimorphism, with the females being larger than the males.

Dolphins have conical teeth, as opposed to porpoises ' spade-shaped teeth. These conical teeth are used to catch swift prey such as fish, squid or large mammals, such as seal. Breathing involves expelling stale air from their blowholeforming an upward, steamy spout, followed by inhaling fresh harass into the lungs, however this only occurs in the polar regions of the oceans.

Dolphins have rather small, unidentifiable spouts. All dolpuins have a thick layer of sexallythickness varying on climate. This blubber can help with buoyancy, protection to some extent as predators would have a hard time getting through a thick layer of fat, and energy for leaner times; the primary usage for blubber is insulation from the harsh climate. Calves, generally, are born with a thin layer of sedually, which develops at different paces depending on the habitat.

Dolphins have a two-chambered stomach that is similar in structure to terrestrial carnivores. They have fundic humajs pyloric chambers. Dolphins' reproductive organs are located inside the body, with genital slits on the ventral belly side. Males have two slits, one concealing the penis dolphina one further behind for dolphnis anus. Dolphins have two pectoral flippers, containing four digits, a boneless dorsal fin for stability, and a tail fin for propulsion.

Although dolphins do not possess external hind limbs, some possess discrete rudimentary sexually, which may contain feet harass digits. Dolphins are fast swimmers in comparison to seals which typically cruise at 9—28 kilometres per hour 5. The fusing of the neck vertebrae, while increasing stability when swimming at high speeds, decreases flexibility, which means they are unable hu,ans turn their heads.

Some species log out solphins the water, which may eexually them to travel faster. Their skeletal anatomy allows them to be fast swimmers. All species have a dorsal fin to prevent themselves from involuntarily spinning in the water. Some dolphins are adapted for diving to great depths.

In addition to their streamlined bodies, some can slow their sexuzlly rate to conserve oxygen. Some can also re-route blood from tissue tolerant of water pressure to the heart, brain and other organs. Their hemoglobin and myoglobin store oxygen in body tissues and they have twice the concentration of sexually than harass.

The dolphin ear has specific adaptations to the marine dlophins. In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance equalizer between the outside air's low impedance and the cochlear fluid's high impedance.

In dolphins, and other marine mammals, there is no great difference between the outer and inner environments. Instead of sound passing through the outer ear to the middle ear, dolphins receive sound through the throat, from which it passes through a low-impedance fat-filled cavity to the inner ear. The dolphin ear is acoustically isolated from the skull by air-filled sinus pockets, which allow for greater directional hearing underwater.

This melon consists of fat, and the skull of any such creature containing a melon will have a large depression. This allows dolphins to produce biosonar for orientation. The dolphin eye is relatively small for its size, yet they do retain a good degree of eyesight.

Humans well as this, the eyes of a dolphin are placed on the sides of its head, so their vision dolphinns of two fields, rather than a binocular view like humans have. When dolphins surface, their lens sexually cornea correct the nearsightedness that results from the refraction of light; they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they dolphlns far more rod cells than they do cone cells. Sexuaoly do, however, lack short wavelength sensitive visual hharass in their cone cells indicating a more limited capacity for color vision than most sexually.

They also have glands on the eyelids and outer corneal layer that act as protection for the cornea. The olfactory lobes are absent in dolphins, suggesting that they have no sense of smell. Dolphins are not thought human have a good sense of taste, as their dolpgins buds are atrophied harasss missing altogether. However, some have preferences between harass kinds of fish, indicating some sort of attachment to taste. Harass are often regarded as one of Earth's most intelligent animals.

Comparing species' relative intelligence is complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition. Furthermore, the difficulty and expense of experimental work with large aquatic animals has so far prevented some tests and limited sample size and rigor in others. Compared to many other species, however, dolphin behavior has dolphins studied extensively, both in captivity and in the wild.

See cetacean intelligence for more details. Dolphins are highly humans animals, often living in pods of up to a dozen individuals, though pod sizes and structures vary greatly between species and locations. In places with a high abundance of food, pods can merge temporarily, forming a superpod ; such groupings dolphins exceed 1, dolphins. Membership in pods is not rigid; dolphins is common. Dolphins can, however, establish strong social bonds; they will stay with injured or ill individuals, even helping them to breathe by bringing them to the surface if needed.

The dolphin Moko in New Zealand has been observed guiding a female pygmy sperm whale together with her calf out of shallow water where they had stranded several times. Dolphins communicate sexuallt a variety of clicks, whistle-like sounds and other vocalizations.

Dolphins also use nonverbal communication by means of touch and posturing. Dolphins also display culture, something long believed to be unique to humans and possibly other primate species. In Maya discovery in Australia found Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus teaching their young to use tools. They cover their snouts with sponges to humsns them while foraging.

This knowledge is mostly transferred by mothers to daughters, unlike simian primates, where knowledge is generally passed on to both sexes. Using sponges as mouth protection is a learned behavior. Forms of care-giving between fellows and even for members of different species [63] see Moko dolphin are recorded in various species — such as trying to save weakened fellows [64] or female pilot whales holding up dead calves for long periods.

The vast majority of such animals are bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and, to a lesser extent, Tursiops aduncus possibly because, as predominantly inshore coastal species, they are more likely to come into contact with humans than other dolphins 1 , 4.

This behavior has also been reported in belugas Delphinapterus leucas , narwhals Monodon monoceros , orcas Orcinus orca , tucuxis Sotalia fluviatilis and other dolphin species, including common Delphinus delphis , striped Stenella coeruleoalba , dusky Lagenorhynchus obscurus , Risso's Grampus griseus and pantropical spotted Stenella attenuata dolphins 5.

Wilke et al. Interactions between wild dolphins and humans have been increasing around the world often encouraged by local tourist agencies 7 and, as solitary-sociable dolphins often restrict their movements to a small area, they may be relatively easy for the public to access 6.

Human-dolphin interactions may lead to various management and welfare problems and even the death of the animal and it is, therefore, appropriate that consideration is given to the management and protection of such dolphins 3 and also the safety of humans entering the water with them.

In this paper we review current knowledge regarding solitary-sociable delphinids and monodontids and detail cases recorded since We consider the stages that they can pass through as they become increasingly sociable and how to improve the protection afforded to them.

We sought the most recent information about solitary-sociable dolphins by i sending a request for information via the MARMAM online mailing list, ii conducting a variety of internet searches, including using academic databases and iii contacting those involved in monitoring their local dolphin populations.

We also advertised this work as ongoing at the meeting of the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission. The information gathered is displayed in two tables; one for animals recorded in Europe and one for animals from other parts of the world. Criteria for inclusion of an animal included that it had to belong to the family of delphinids or monodontids and that it had to have been seen since Any dolphins that died or disappeared before are not included in our tables.

The animal also had to have been recorded on its own for a prolonged period at least a few weeks. Then we considered the behaviors exhibited and assigned the dolphins to one of the stages and, if possible, levels of sociability described below in section Stages of Sociability. Wherever possible we contacted scientists and other observers who had reported the animals to verify information. The solitary belugas are not assigned to any of the stages of sociability here as it is not clear whether their behavior develops in the same way as it does for dolphins C.

Kinsman , pers. This is an area that merits future research as in Canada there have been an increasing number of solitary belugas reported in recent years see Table 3 , and this year there has also been a case of a solitary beluga in the waters off the United Kingdom see section Cases of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins Since Group sizes may range from one to over and may be influenced by habitat structure and activity patterns Food availability and loss of habitat may sometimes determine dolphin social structures and could lead to solitary behavior 4 , 6.

Different factors, or a combination of factors, may prompt a dolphin to become solitary for a prolonged period and it is important to note that such an animal will not necessarily start interacting or socializing with humans.

Differences between individuals in terms of their behavioral choices could mean that some animals are more likely to become solitary than others 6. Connor et al.

Some dolphins may become solitary because of their individual life experience. Thus, the death of a male dolphin's coalition partner, the loss of a whole group or a mother due to illness, bycatch or hunting or the poor health of an individual because of illness or injury could all potentially lead to a dolphin becoming solitary 6. It is also possible that young dolphins that have not learned the necessary social skills from their mother have problems integrating into dolphin society.

The majority of recorded cases of solitary dolphins come from areas close to the coast, perhaps because the open ocean is a more dangerous place for a lone animal or because they are more likely to be observed and recorded when they are in coastal areas 6. The available evidence indicates that, fairly obviously, for a solitary dolphin to become a solitary-sociable dolphin, it has to be in an area where it can come into frequent contact with people.

They suggest that, in the past, dolphin social groups overlapped and so an individual that was leaving one group, could easily find another group to join. In areas where numbers have been reduced, social groups may be more separated and so an individual may find itself alone for a longer period before it encounters another group and it could, potentially, become solitary during this period. Simmonds and Stansfield 21 proposed that, in the United Kingdom, an increasing number of solitary bottlenose dolphins could be due to the distance between the relatively few remaining groups, and that individuals which disperse or are displaced from their natal group may end up on their own because they simply do not find another group to join.

Stage 1: a solitary dolphin establishes itself in a limited home range. The area has sufficient prey and an area where the dolphin likes to rest, such as next to a buoy or moored boat.

The dolphin may follow boats or approach fishing gear but it does not approach humans. Stage 2: The dolphin may start to follow boats more regularly and to engage in bow-riding as well as investigating ropes, chains, buoys etc. The dolphin is interested in people who enter the water to swim with it, but it maintains a distance.

Stage 3: The dolphin becomes accustomed to one or more people who have deliberately tried to habituate it. Humans swim and dive with the dolphin, touch it and even hold its dorsal fin so that they can be pulled through the water. The dolphin may initiate some of these interactions and thereby help the habituation process. Stage 4: Thanks to media reports, the dolphin becomes a tourist attraction.

People come from further afield to see and swim with the dolphin. The dolphin may start to exhibit dominant, aggressive and sexual behaviors. While some dolphins allow human contact quite quickly, for others it takes more time before they will accept interactions and touching in the water and such habituation requires considerable effort from the humans initiating it Indeed, Doak 23 noted that whereas some solitary-sociable dolphins have very limited home ranges e.

Wilke , cited in Goodwin 14 , suggested developing Stages 3 and 4 further to include the following levels:. Level 2: the dolphin interacts with humans but does not allow direct physical contact,. Level 4: the dolphin allows direct contact with anyone. It does not demonstrate socio-sexual or dominance behaviors,. Level 5: the dolphin allows direct contact with anyone and regularly exhibits socio-sexual and dominance behaviors. Goodwin and Dodds 5 proposed two further stages.

We consider that interactions with other species could happen during a number of the stages e. We do not see this as a discretely separate stage. Goodwin and Dodds 5 also proposed a Stage 6 where the dolphin begins to interact with its own species again. There are many cases throughout history of solitary-sociable dolphins. This table may not be complete but it gives some idea of the numbers concerned. Of the 91 animals listed, 62 were recorded as bottlenose dolphins [61 T. Since , 36 solitary delphinoidea have been recorded including 27 bottlenose dolphins 25 T.

Twenty-three of these animals were recorded in Europe and thirteen from other locations around the world. Identifying individual solitary dolphins can be difficult if the animal does not have known distinctive markings and, also, if it is wide-ranging. In Ireland, for example, there appear, at first glance, to be quite a high number of solitary dolphins whereas actually, in some cases, the same dolphin has been given different names in different locations.

Meade, , pers. Categorizations are based on the information available to us in articles, personal communications and videos. We recognize that these may not include all interactions that have taken place between humans and a given dolphin and, therefore, may not fully represent the actual stage reached by each animal.

For example, the striped dolphin reported by Nimak-Wood et al. One of the reasons put forward by the authors for the lack of human interaction is that the dolphin was present in a harbor where swimming was prohibited and therefore the opportunity for dolphin-human interaction was limited. The short-beaked common dolphin described by Genov et al. This dolphin could be considered to be Stage 1. Some dolphins are difficult to categorize because they do not seem to fit clearly into the stages and levels described.

However, he did demonstrate aggressive behavior toward people and other species e. He would only allow certain people to interact with him Level 3 and yet he would sometimes demonstrate socio-sexual and dominance behaviors Level 5 I.

Visser, , pers. This demonstrates that, even though we can attempt to categorize and understand solitary dolphins, they are individuals and some animals may exhibit behaviors which do not appear to follow the pattern shown by the majority. Of the 36 cases of solitary dolphins and belugas recorded since , the sex of 25 of them has been recorded.

It is possible that mistakes were made in determining sex and so these figures do not necessarily show that males are more likely to become solitary than females. A stage 0 dolphin is simply one seen to be persistently on its own; it is not seen within a limited home range and may be seen in multiple locations.

It is distinguished from Wilke et al. Stage 5 relates to those seemingly rare cases where the dolphin returns to live with other conspecifics and ceases to be solitary. Such cases are hard to document because sometimes an individual disappears and it is not known whether it joined a pod, relocated or died. This Stage corresponds with the Stage 6 proposed by Goodwin and Dodds 5.

This proposed new categorization of stages which incorporates those of Wilke et al. The Figure also highlights that some individual dolphins do not necessarily pass through all stages. For example, a dolphin that is seen on its own for a period of time may subsequently join a school of other dolphins. In discussing the life of the solitary dolphin, we draw on examples not only from the last 10 years, but also some cases prior to where helpful.

Solitary dolphins may seek out interactions with humans including touch, social, sexual and play behaviors 2. This contact, to some extent at least, seemingly replaces the social interaction and physical contact that would otherwise be provided by conspecifics 2 and can become very important to the individual animal.

Bloom et al. Doak 23 suggested that the touch and social interaction provided by humans is important for the welfare of these solitary animals. Mizrahi et al. Concern for the welfare of free-ranging dolphins that interact on a regular basis with humans has been expressed by a number of authors 3 , 22 , Human behavior can have a negative impact on the dolphin when the dolphin's needs are not taken into consideration and the dolphin is disturbed when it is resting or feeding 2.

Such disturbances may be unintentional on the part of the humans but can have a negative impact on the welfare of the dolphin. Unfortunately, people sometimes direct inappropriate behaviors toward the animals. Tourists interacting with wild botos in Brazil have also been observed trying to ride or restrain the dolphins, hitting them and feeding them inappropriate items Although food provisioning has rarely formed part of the development process for solitary-sociable dolphins, and some dolphins are reported to have refused the handouts offered to them 22 , there are cases where solitary dolphins have been fed by humans.

Morteo, , pers. Such provisioning can become a welfare issue when dolphins are fed inappropriate or contaminated food items 11 , 32 or, potentially, when they approach boats for food and are badly treated in return. Provisioned dolphins also risk ingesting fish-hooks and other tackle.

He had wounds from boat strikes, fishing hooks and fishing line in his stomach as well as squid beaks which indicated that he had received more food from humans than from foraging on his own. Studies reported by Foroughirad and Mann 33 have shown that provisioned female bottlenose dolphins living in the population in Shark Bay, Australia provided less care to their calves and that the calves had higher mortality rates than those born to non-provisioned females.

After management measures were introduced to reduce the time that females spent being provisioned, calf survival rates increased Their close proximity to humans and presence in shallow waters puts solitary dolphins in danger of accidental stranding and injuries. Samuels et al. Bejder et al. In fact, many solitary-sociable dolphins have been injured by boats. She disappeared shortly after receiving this injury and it is possible that she died from her wounds.

Elwen and Leeney 36 noted that some cetaceans may learn to avoid boats after a negative experience such as a biopsy or capture but most studies have shown that injuries do not lead to behavioral changes. Therefore, even if an animal has been struck by a boat, it will not necessarily learn to avoid boats in the future and is still at risk from further accidents. For example, the Heaviside's dolphin Cephalorhynchus heavisidii which Elwen and Leeney studied post-injury, continued to approach the research boat and to bow-ride Unfortunately, there are many reports of wild dolphins, including solitary-sociable dolphins, being deliberately harassed and injured 22 , This may be after they come into perceived or real conflict with people when their behavior disrupts human activity such as fishing , damages property for example, fishing gear or when they exhibit aggressive behaviors Deliberate attempts to shoot, spear or injure dolphins with a variety of weapons have been recorded 22 , He was found dead on 6th August having been stunned by an illegal fishing bomb and wounded with a harpoon G.

Pietroluongo, , pers. Pietroluongo , pers. Some solitary dolphins do interact, at least occasionally, with conspecifics. She exhibited solitary-sociable behavior some of the time approaching swimmers, divers and boats, bow-riding and rubbing against ropes but she also spent time with her group when she actively avoided boats and swimmers.

On the first of these occasions he prompted an unusually intense amount of socializing amongst the dolphins but also spent some of the time on his own at the back of the research vessel M.

Perri, , pers. His interactions with other dolphins were alternated with periods of typical solitary dolphin behavior, such as spending hours following the same boat and swimming around a mooring buoy. Sometimes solitary dolphins interact with individuals from other species. Cosentino, , pers. There are also cases of solitary dolphins interacting with domestic animals. It is a commonly held belief that dolphins are of a friendly disposition and that they want to help and protect people who enter the water with them.

Although there is evidence that this may sometimes be the case, 60 there are also various accounts of solitary dolphins injuring humans in the water with them. Such aggressive behaviors from the dolphins are often the result of inappropriate human interactions 26 , He would breach over people, push and bump them, knock them off surfboards and prevent swimmers returning to shore. It has been suggested that male solitary-sociable dolphins are more likely to show aggressive behavior toward humans including sexually aggressive behavior 2 , 9 , It can be dangerous for humans to be on the receiving end of robust dolphin behavior 2.

The context of this may be important. There is another case, from Gran Canaria, Spain in , where robust interactions with a free-swimming dolphin appear to have resulted in the death of a swimmer Humans who interact with dolphins may also be at risk of being bitten.

In Brazil, provisioned wild botos have also bitten humans The risks to human health and safety as well as the welfare concerns apparent for the dolphins themselves, highlight the need for specific management and protection for these animals.

The widespread human desire to approach or interact with dolphins inappropriately, in ways which can be dangerous to both dolphins and people, means that the management of human behavior is necessary 3 , 7. The plan involved educating the public, working with the media and trying to prevent dangerous interactions between the public and the dolphin Some efforts to manage interactions between humans and dolphins have improved the survival chances for certain solitary-sociable dolphins Doak 23 reported that some communities inform the public, via notice-boards and leaflets, about best practice when it comes to how to treat the local solitary dolphin.

It is important that the guardians are working to protect the dolphins and to inform the public. Such was the public's enthusiasm to get into the water with the dolphin that the local police were also called in on several occasions to help protect her and two arrests were made. The Kent Tourist Board, local council and other agencies were involved in meetings about dolphin and human safety In Brazil, activities involving interactions with wild dolphins, such as feeding and swimming with botos is not regulated, codes of conduct are often not followed and those running businesses promoting these interactions do not receive any specialized training In general, there is a lack of legislation relating to tourism involving animals in Brazil and that regarding dolphins is limited to preventing disturbance by boats Alves et al.

In some countries, conservation legislation may offer some protection to solitary-sociable dolphins. The Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching also provide detailed information regarding which types of boats can partake in dolphin watching and how they can and cannot approach the animals with details about caution zones and no-approach zones Many countries discourage the public from swimming with dolphins.

In Ireland the National Parks and Wildlife Service NPWS produced guidelines in reminding people that dolphins are wild animals and discouraging interactions, such as swimming with them or attempting to manhandle or interfere with them The Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport 49 published guidelines for interactions with whales and dolphins in Irish coastal waters including details of how vessels should be handled around cetaceans and stating that people should not attempt to swim with them.

Sometimes it may be necessary for the authorities to specifically prohibit certain interactions. In some places there are schemes in place to encourage responsible encounters with cetaceans. It encourages people to;. The UK's WiSe Scheme trains vessel operators on how to best approach and interact with marine wildlife whilst minimizing disturbance.

The WiSe Scheme highlights the risk of injury from propellers and the fact that solitary-sociable dolphins are often very attracted to them and therefore it is recommended that engines are put into neutral if a dolphin approaches. Boat owners are also warned of the danger posed to passengers if a dolphin rubs against the boat, rudder or propeller, subsequently unsteadying the vessel. If the dolphin does not move away, even after turning off the engine, it is recommended to return to harbor with a steady speed.

Feeding and resting areas should be avoided and if the animal is seen engaging in these behaviors it should not be approached. For boat owners operating in an area with a resident solitary-sociable dolphin, it may be appropriate to fit a propeller guard. It is important not to swim with, touch or feed these dolphins as such behavior can lead to the animal being injured or disturbed and even to its death.

Simmonds 3 called for better protection for solitary-sociable dolphins and for increased efforts to prevent them from becoming accustomed to contact with humans in the first place. Hawkins 9 proposed a number of ways, including relocation, in which the habituation of a solitary dolphin could be avoided. Solitary dolphins which do not become accustomed to interacting with humans may have an increased chance of starting to interact with conspecifics again.

Keener, , pers. Recently, they have been joined by two further dolphins W. Santos 38 also recommended that regulations and guidelines are needed to prevent dolphins and humans from being injured. Such guidelines may need to be specific to certain circumstances. In tropical countries, for example, people are in the water almost all year round and all day long.

Santos, , pers. A solitary-sociable dolphin from Australia, which had progressed to stage 4 of sociability, was relocated in and later joined a group of wild dolphins 9 ; This dolphin was young between 3. After about 4 months of being solitary and isolated in St George's Basin, the dolphin would allow physical contact from swimmers. After detailed assessment it was decided to relocate the dolphin to the open ocean. Another translocation took place in , of a solitary male beluga who was moved from New Brunswick to the St Lawrence Estuary in Canada.

A year later, in July , he was sighted in the company of another male beluga off Cape Breton in Nova Scotia. This sighting was not in an area inhabited by his natal or any other beluga population and it is not clear at the time of writing whether he has returned to live with conspecifics or not C. Kinsman, , pers. According to Wilke et al.

It is clear that solitary dolphins are particularly vulnerable and that their interactions with humans need to be carefully managed to prevent them from being negatively impacted Such careful management can also ensure that humans are not injured or put at risk either.

Several bathers were really afraid — he even lifted up a woman bather with his snout," Lars announced, reports BBC. According to BBC, a swimmer required rescue by boat last month when Zafar prevented her from returning to shore. However not everyone supports the ban. None," he said. Though attacks by dolphins on humans are rare, they do occur.

Two years ago, BBC published an article titled "Cute and cuddly dolphins are secretly murderers," in which writer Henry Nicholls acquiesces that though "dolphins are intelligent, friendly mammals," they "also go in for sexual harassment, incest and infanticide. Mariam Sharia.