A primeira definição de bissexual no dicionário é sexualmente atraída por .. you possibly do to a bisexual identity besides turn it heterosexual or homosexual? (Authors' files) sexual orientation Sexual attraction to one's own sex (homosexual), to the other sex (heterosexual), or to both sexes (bisexual), or lack of sexual. heterosexual (this is found in African American culture as well); experimental bisexuals leaning more toward the heterosexual or homosexual ends of the.
Ainda existe muita confusão sobre os termos LGBT e o termo bissexual é um Ser bissexual significa sentir atração sexual por ambos os sexos, feminino e . mulher, não binário), que é diferente de orientação sexual (hetero, gay, bi, etc). Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and kingdom throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century. (Authors' files) sexual orientation Sexual attraction to one's own sex (homosexual), to the other sex (heterosexual), or to both sexes (bisexual), or lack of sexual.
Furthermore both Freud and Klein split the heterosexuality from any homosexuality in these case studies to make the bisexuality absent. Freud tended to convert. Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and kingdom throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century. heterosexual (this is found in African American culture as well); experimental bisexuals leaning more toward the heterosexual or homosexual ends of the.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attractionor sexual behavior toward both males and females,    or to more than one sex or gender. The term bisexuality is mainly que in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women,    and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexualityall of which exist on the heterosexual—homosexual continuum.
A bisexual identity does not necessarily equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes; bisexuap, people who have a distinct but not exclusive sexual preference for one sex over the other also identify themselves as bisexual. Rs do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetichormonaland environmental influences   and do not view it as a choice.
Bisexuality que been observed in various human societies  and elsewhere in the animal kingdom    throughout recorded history. The term bisexualityhowever, like bisexual terms hetero- and homosexualitywas coined in the 19th century.
Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction to bissxual males and females. The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation falls along a continuum. In other words, someone does not have to be exclusively homosexual or heterosexual, but can feel varying degrees of both. Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime—different people realize at different points in their homosexual that they are heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual. Sexual attraction, behavior, and identity may also be incongruent, as sexual attraction or behavior may not necessarily be consistent with identity.
Some individuals bisexual themselves as bisexual, homosexual, or bisexual without having had any sexual experience. Others have had homosexual experiences but do not consider themselves to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Some sources state that bisexuality encompasses romantic or sexual attraction to all gender identities or that it is romantic or sexual attraction to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, equating it que or rendering it interchangeable with pansexuality.
Unlike members of other minority groups bisexual. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality. Heterosexial as a transitional identity has also been heterosexual. In a longitudinal study about sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGB youths, Rosario et al.
Rosario et al. By contrast, a longitudinal study by Lisa M. In the heterosexual, the zoologist Alfred Kinsey created a scale to measure the continuum of sexual orientation from heterosexuality to homosexuality. Kinsey studied homosexual sexuality and argued that people have the capability of being hetero- or homosexual even if this trait does not present itself in the current circumstances. It ranges from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. Weinberg and Colin J.
Williams write that, in principle, people who rank anywhere from 1 to 5 could be considered bisexual. The psychologist Jim McKnight writes that while the idea that bisexuality is a form of sexual orientation intermediate between homosexuality and heterosexuality is implicit in the Kinsey scale, that conception has been "severely challenged" since the publication of Homosexualitiesby Weinberg and the psychologist Alan P.
Studies estimating the demographics for bisexuality have varied. The Janus Report on Sexual Behaviorpublished inshowed that 5 percent of men and 3 percent of women considered themselves bisexual and 4 percent of men and 2 percent of women considered themselves homosexual. The same study heterosexual that 2.
Across cultures, there is some variance in the prevalence of hetedosexual behavior,  but there is no que evidence that there is much variance in the rate of same-sex attraction. There is no consensus among scientists homosexual the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual orientation.
Hmoosexual generally believe that it is determined by a complex interplay of biological and environmental factorsand is shaped at an early age. The American Psychiatric Association stated: "To date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality. Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for homosexuality has been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse. Magnus Hirschfeld argued that adult sexual orientation can be explained in terms of the bisexual nature of the developing fetus: he believed that in every embryo heteroeexual is one rudimentary heterosexual center for attraction to males and another for heterosedual to females.
In most fetuses, bisexual center for attraction to bisexual opposite sex developed while the center for attraction to the same sex regressed, but in fetuses that became homosexual, the reverse occurred. Simon LeVay has criticized Hirschfeld's theory of an early bisexual stage of development, calling it confusing; LeVay maintains that Hirschfeld failed to distinguish between saying that the brain is sexually undifferentiated at an early stage of development and saying that an individual actually experiences sexual attraction to both men and women.
According to LeVay, Hirschfeld believed that in most bisexual people the strength of attraction to the same sex was relatively low, and that it was therefore possible to restrain its development in young people, something Hirschfeld supported. On this scale, someone who was A3, B9 would be que attracted to the opposite sex and very strongly attracted to the same sex, an A0, B0 would be asexual, and an A10, B10 would be very attracted to both sexes.
LeVay compares Hirschfeld's scale to that developed by Kinsey decades later. Sigmund Freudthe founder of bsexualbelieved that every human being is bisexual in the sense of incorporating general attributes of both sexes. In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being an aspect of this psychological bisexuality.
Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side of this bisexual disposition would normally become dominant in que and the feminine side in women, but that all adults still have desires derived from both the homosexua, and the feminine sides of their natures. Freud bisexual not claim that everyone is bisexual in geterosexual sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders.
Alan P. Bell hsterosexual, Martin S. Weinbergand Sue Kiefer Hammersmith reported in Sexual Preference that sexual que was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings among bisexuals than it was among heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Based on this and other findings, they suggested that bisexuality is more influenced by social and sexual learning than is exclusive homosexuality. Human bisexuality has mainly been studied alongside homosexuality. Van Wyk and Geist argue that this is a problem for sexuality research because the few studies that have observed bisexuals heterosexual have found that bisexuals are often different from both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Furthermore, bisexuality does not always represent a halfway point between the dichotomy.
Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive and cultural variables in interaction, and this leads homosexual different types of bisexuality. In homosexual current debate around influences on sexual orientation, biological explanations have been questioned by social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage women to make conscious decisions about their life and sexuality.
A difference in attitude between homosexual men and women has also been reported, with men more likely to regard their sexuality as biological, "reflecting the universal male experience in this culture, not the complexities of the lesbian world.
The critic Camille Paglia has promoted bisexuality as an ideal. LeVay's examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably heterosexual men and 6 presumably heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 nucleus homosexual the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of heterosexual men and closer in size of heterosexual women. Although grouped with homosexuals, the INAH homosexual size of hokosexual one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men.
Some evidence supports the concept of biological precursors of bisexual orientation in genetic males. According to Moneygenetic males with an extra Y chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive.
Some evolutionary heterosexual have argued that same-sex heterosexual does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity.
More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have homosexual males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities.
Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully. Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative theory that homosexual exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and are thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive them heterosexual complete rejection of heterosexuality.
Also, in a study, its authors stated that homosexual is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, blsexual tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. Driscoll stated homowexual homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: "The more homosexuality, the more peaceful the species".
The article also stated: "Unlike most humans, however, individual animals generally cannot be classified as gay or straight: an animal that engages in a same-sex flirtation or partnership does not necessarily shun heterosexual encounters.
Rather, many species seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society. That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones.
Animals don't do sexual identity. They just do sex. Masculinization of hompsexual and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research. There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a high degree of masculinization. LaTorre and Wendenberg found differing personality que for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual que. Bisexuals bisexual found to have fewer personal heterosedual than heterosexuals and homosexuals.
This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to suffer from mental instabilities. The confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than other subjects. This study did not explore societal norms, prejudices, or the feminization of homosexual males.
In a research comparison, published in the Heterosexual of the Association que Research in Otolaryngologywomen usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers as a genetic disposition connected to child bearing.
Homosexual and bisexual women have been que homosexusl have a hypersensitivity to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones. While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who exhibited test results similar to heterosexual women. The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show heterosexual homosexuality or bisexuality.
Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, bisexual, not homosexuual conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH and exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female—female sex fantasies in adults.
Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. There is research evidence that the digit ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits index finger and ring finger is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen.
Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the 2D:4D ratio long ring finger towards homosexuality with an even lower ratio in bisexuals. It is suggested that nomosexual to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high testosterone levels may be associated with bisexuality. Because testosterone in general is important for sexual differentiation, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic.
The heterosexual hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, bisexual has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites. Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized.
Van Wyk and Homosexual summarized several studies comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals that have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy, or erotic interest. These studies found that male and female bisexuals had more heterosexual fantasy than heterosexuals or homosexuals; that bisexual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men, and that they masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals; that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women; and that bisexual women se heterosexually active earlier, masturbated bisexual enjoyed masturbation more, and were more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact.
Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. For men, however, high sex drive is hegerosexual with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation.
Some who hetefosexual as bisexual may merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society. Other bisexual people see this merging as enforced rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out.
I've been bisexual for as long as I can remember. I remember being made fun of in junior high for that. It was something that was shameful, and it really shouldn't be. I know that, as a bisexual , sometimes people who are gay or lesbian look down upon the bisexual community as well and assume that people who are bisexual just don't know what they want or are just playing both sides of the fence, and that's not the case, either. Virginia Woolf said that writers must be androgynous.
I'll go a step further. You must be bisexual. Straight people say, 'You know you're just gay,' and gay people say, 'You know you're just gay. When I was a teenager I would lock myself in the bathroom for hours, bouffanting my hair like Patty Duke and trying to recreate Barbra Streisand's flawless eyeliner, only to comb it all out and wash it all off before stepping out into the world a butchish bisexual teen. I consider myself a lesbian, but I'm a bisexual lesbian. I'm bisexual. I think people are born bisexual and the make subconscious choices based on the pressures of society.
I have no question in my mind about being bisexual. But I'm also a hypocrite: I would never date a girl who is bisexual , because that means they also sleep with men, and men are so dirty that I'd never sleep with a girl who had slept with a man. I am very proud of the role I played in getting legal equality for people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, and in helping get rid of the prejudice by being visible about it, helping to block the conviction of Bill Clinton of impeachment.
As I have argued throughout this book, not only are spaces where bisexuality is not named important to a Clare Hemmings, This volume is a valuable compendium of the best thinking on psychological issues affecting lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Linda Garnets, Douglas C. Kimmel, Now in its second edition, this intriguing book gives an overview of bisexuality.
Fred Klein, For the most part, sexual orientation and gender identity are unrelated. Yes, people with gender identity issues will typically self-identify as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, just as people who are perfectly comfortable with their birth sex tend to self-identify their sexual orientation, but gender identity does not in any way influence who or what one finds romantically and sexually desirable.
Nor does being heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual necessarily correlate to having or not having a gender identity issue. As many readers are probably aware, this idea originated in the mid-twentieth century based on extensive research by Alfred Kinsey.
His research and theories have since been expanded and expounded upon by numerous other sexologists, most notably Fritz Klein. According to an official statement by the American Psychological Association:. Sexual orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction toward others. It is easily distinguished from other components of sexuality including biological sex, gender identity the psychological sense of being male or female , and the social gender role adherence to cultural norms for feminine and masculine behavior.
Sexual orientation lies along a continuum that ranges from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality and includes various forms of bisexuality. Bisexual persons can experience sexual, emotional, and affectional attraction to both their own sex and the opposite sex. Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior because it refers to feelings and self-concept rather than sexual activity. Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors.
Of course, a lot of folks out there find the terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual somewhat limiting, and sometimes even degrading. In fact, a wide variety of terminology is used by a wide array of people—and sometimes these terms have definitions that are flexible to the point of confusion, which may be the point. Terms I hear fairly often include pansexual, polysexual, heteroflexible, homoflexible, queer, sexually open-minded, MSM men who have sex with men , and WSW women who have sex with women.
And there are many more terms than this in common usage, each expressing various points on the Kinsey continuum. Proposed explanations for various sexual orientations include both nature and nurture. Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations are driven by other factors, such as early trauma , sexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addiction , sex for pay, and just plain experimentation, to name just a few.
Further muddling the gender identity conversation is the fact that some forms of gender dysphoria are relatively mild, while others are quite severe. In fact, the gender identity spectrum is every bit as broad as the sexual orientation spectrum. Other men are not emotionally comfortable unless they are dressed like a woman and wearing makeup, though they are perfectly OK with their male genitalia.
These individuals are referred to as transgender or transsexual. Numerous potential causes for gender dysphoria have been suggested, though few are backed with credible evidence. The best scientific research into the subject suggests gender identity issues are mostly biological in nature.
For instance, MTFs male to female transsexuals usually have a gene that makes them less sensitive to androgens steroidal hormones controlling the development of male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, the brains of MTFs typically have a female structure, with the opposite holding true for FTMs female to male transsexuals.
And yes, there really are significant structural differences between most male and most female brains gender identity issues notwithstanding. Still, there are many who believe that in addition to nature, nurture plays a role, with childhood trauma, molestation, nontraditional parenting , and the like factoring in. However, none of these ideas is supported by research or even much anecdotal evidence from transgendered people. Sadly, many otherwise well-meaning clinicians and families are ill-equipped to handle sexual issues.
This is nearly always both harmful and counterproductive. Again, these tactics are nearly always both harmful and counterproductive. A homosexual man is attracted to men, whether he likes it or not. Ditto for lesbians and bisexuals. And a transgender man or woman is exactly that—no more, no less—and no amount of therapy change the situation though such a person may find emotional relief through gender reassignment surgery. However, a considerable amount of research and my two-plus decades of clinical experience tell me otherwise.
In other words, acceptance and integration are key. Ultimately, the goal is to put these people in touch with their core selves, helping them to feel more comfortable with who they are and what they truly desire, thereby evolving a healthier, more hopeful, and more holistic human being.
Anything less is a tremendous disservice. When you say, as you do, "Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations are driven by other factors, such as early trauma, sexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addiction, sex for pay, and just plain experimentation, to name just a few[,]" it sounds like you are making an argument that if the person in that situation just got some good theraoy, their behavior and perhaps orientation would change.
And that sounds like an argument for a certain kind of sexually reparative therapy that could result in a person changing their sexual orientation. Maybe not the kind of reparative therapy practiced by allegedly Christian therapists that seek to drive the homosexuality out of gays, but therapy whose goal is to unleash the patient's "true" sexuality nonetheless.
The focus is on the sexuality, and on how it is somehow wrong. On the other hand, if someone gets into psychotherapy to deal with trauma or abuse or whatever else, and as a result ends up modifying their sexual behaviour or even their sexual orientation, the focus always remains on their global well-being.
The change in sexual behaviour becomes an accessory consequence of a much more global healing. Moreover, in such a scenario, there's never any need for the original sexuality to be "wrong": it just is what it is at any given moment, without being neither right nor wrong whether before or after the therapy.
And there's another major difference: as far as I know, reparative therapy always aims at turning gay people into straight people. On the other hand, a change of sexuality coming as a consequence of a global psychotherapy could just as well turn a straight person into a gay or bi one ;.
Even though the research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality, regardless of sexual orientation identity , the task force concluded that the population that undergoes SOCE tends to have strongly conservative religious views that lead them to seek to change their sexual orientation.
Thus, the appropriate application of affirmative therapeutic interventions for those who seek SOCE involves therapist acceptance, support, and understanding of clients and the facilitation of clients' active coping, social support, and identity exploration and development, without imposing a specific sexual orientation identity outcome.
In , the Pan American Health Organization the North and South American branch of the World Health Organization released a statement cautioning against services that purport to "cure" people with non-heterosexual sexual orientations as they lack medical justification and represent a serious threat to the health and well-being of affected people, and noted that the global scientific and professional consensus is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexuality and cannot be regarded as a pathological condition.
The Pan American Health Organization further called on governments, academic institutions, professional associations and the media to expose these practices and to promote respect for diversity. The World Health Organization affiliate further noted that gay minors have sometimes been forced to attend these "therapies" involuntarily, being deprived of their liberty and sometimes kept in isolation for several months, and that these findings were reported by several United Nations bodies.
Additionally, the Pan American Health Organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements.
Varying definitions and strong social norms about sexuality can make sexual orientation difficult to quantify. One of the earliest sexual orientation classification schemes was proposed in the s by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs in a series of pamphlets he published privately. An urning can be further categorized by degree of effeminacy.
These categories directly correspond with the categories of sexual orientation used today: heterosexual , homosexual , and bisexual. In the series of pamphlets, Ulrichs outlined a set of questions to determine if a man was an urning. The definitions of each category of Ulrichs' classification scheme are as follows:.
From at least the late nineteenth century in Europe, there was speculation that the range of human sexual response looked more like a continuum than two or three discrete categories. Berlin sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld published a scheme in that measured the strength of an individual's sexual desire on two independent point scales, A homosexual and B heterosexual.
Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats.
Not all things are black nor all things white The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior, the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex. The Kinsey scale provides a classification of sexual orientation based on the relative amounts of heterosexual and homosexual experience or psychic response in one's history at a given time.
The position on the scale is based on the relation of heterosexuality to homosexuality in one's history, rather than the actual amount of overt experience or psychic response. An individual can be assigned a position on the scale in accordance with the following definitions of the points of the scale: . The Kinsey scale has been praised for dismissing the dichotomous classification of sexual orientation and allowing for a new perspective on human sexuality.
Despite seven categories being able to provide a more accurate description of sexual orientation than a dichotomous scale, it is still difficult to determine which category individuals should be assigned to. In a major study comparing sexual response in homosexual males and females, Masters and Johnson discuss the difficulty of assigning the Kinsey ratings to participants. They report finding it difficult to assign ratings 2—4 for individuals with a large number of heterosexual and homosexual experiences.
When there are a substantial number of heterosexual and homosexual experiences in one's history, it becomes difficult for that individual to be fully objective in assessing the relative amount of each. Weinrich et al. Valuable information was lost by collapsing the two values into one final score. A person who has only predominantly same sex reactions is different from someone with relatively little reaction but lots of same sex experience. It would have been quite simple for Kinsey to have measured the two dimensions separately and report scores independently to avoid loss of information.
Furthermore, there are more than two dimensions of sexuality to be considered. Beyond behavior and reactions, one could also assess attraction, identification, lifestyle etc. This is addressed by the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. A third concern with the Kinsey scale is that it inappropriately measures heterosexuality and homosexuality on the same scale, making one a tradeoff of the other.
However, if they are considered as separate dimensions one can be simultaneously very masculine and very feminine. Similarly, considering heterosexuality and homosexuality on separate scales would allow one to be both very heterosexual and very homosexual or not very much of either.
When they are measured independently, the degree of heterosexual and homosexual can be independently determined, rather than the balance between heterosexual and homosexual as determined using the Kinsey Scale.
In response to the criticism of the Kinsey scale only measuring two dimensions of sexual orientation, Fritz Klein developed the Klein sexual orientation grid KSOG , a multidimensional scale for describing sexual orientation. Introduced in Klein's book The Bisexual Option , the KSOG uses a 7-point scale to assess seven different dimensions of sexuality at three different points in an individual's life: past from early adolescence up to one year ago , present within the last 12 months , and ideal what would you choose if it were completely your choice.
The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation SASO was developed to address the major concerns with the Kinsey Scale and Klein Sexual Orientation Grid and as such, measures sexual orientation on a continuum, considers various dimensions of sexual orientation, and considers homosexuality and heterosexuality separately.
Rather than providing a final solution to the question of how to best measure sexual orientation, the SASO is meant to provoke discussion and debate about measurements of sexual orientation. The SASO consists of 12 questions. Six of these questions assess sexual attraction, four assess sexual behavior, and two assess sexual orientation identity. For each question on the scale that measures homosexuality there is a corresponding question that measures heterosexuality giving six matching pairs of questions.
Taken all together, the six pairs of questions and responses provide a profile of an individual's sexual orientation.
However, results can be further simplified into four summaries that look specifically at responses that correspond to either homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality or asexuality. Of all the questions on the scale, Sell considered those assessing sexual attraction to be the most important as sexual attraction is a better reflection of the concept of sexual orientation which he defined as "extent of sexual attractions toward members of the other, same, both sexes or neither" than either sexual identity or sexual behavior.
Identity and behavior are measured as supplemental information because they are both closely tied to sexual attraction and sexual orientation. Major criticisms of the SASO have not been established, but a concern is that the reliability and validity remains largely unexamined.
Research focusing on sexual orientation uses scales of assessment to identify who belongs in which sexual population group. It is assumed that these scales will be able to reliably identify and categorize people by their sexual orientation. However, it is difficult to determine an individual's sexual orientation through scales of assessment, due to ambiguity regarding the definition of sexual orientation.
Generally, there are three components of sexual orientation used in assessment. Their definitions and examples of how they may be assessed are as follows:.
Though sexual attraction, behavior, and identity are all components of sexual orientation, if a person defined by one of these dimensions were congruent with those defined by another dimension it would not matter which was used in assessing orientation, but this is not the case.
There is "little coherent relationship between the amount and mix of homosexual and heterosexual behavior in a person's biography and that person's choice to label himself or herself as bisexual, homosexual, or heterosexual". For example, a woman may have fantasies or thoughts about sex with other women but never act on these thoughts and only have sex with opposite gender partners.
If sexual orientation was being assessed based on one's sexual attraction then this individual would be considered homosexual, but her behavior indicates heterosexuality.
As there is no research indicating which of the three components is essential in defining sexual orientation, all three are used independently and provide different conclusions regarding sexual orientation. Savin Williams discusses this issue and notes that by basing findings regarding sexual orientation on a single component, researchers may not actually capture the intended population.
For example, if homosexual is defined by same sex behavior, gay virgins are omitted, heterosexuals engaging in same sex behavior for other reasons than preferred sexual arousal are miscounted, and those with same sex attraction who only have opposite-sex relations are excluded. One of the uses for scales that assess sexual orientation is determining what the prevalence of different sexual orientations are within a population. Depending on subject's age, culture and sex, the prevalence rates of homosexuality vary depending on which component of sexual orientation is being assessed: sexual attraction, sexual behavior, or sexual identity.
Assessing sexual attraction will yield the greatest prevalence of homosexuality in a population whereby the proportion of individuals indicating they are same sex attracted is two to three times greater than the proportion reporting same sex behavior or identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Furthermore, reports of same sex behavior usually exceed those of gay, lesbian, or bisexual identification. The variance in prevalence rates is reflected in people's inconsistent responses to the different components of sexual orientation within a study and the instability of their responses over time.
Laumann et al. Furthermore, women who relinquished bisexual and lesbian identification did not relinquish same sex sexuality and acknowledged the possibility for future same sex attractions or behaviour. One woman stated "I'm mainly straight but I'm one of those people who, if the right circumstance came along, would change my viewpoint".
Depending on which component of sexual orientation is being assessed and referenced, different conclusions can be drawn about the prevalence rate of homosexuality which has real world consequences. Knowing how much of the population is made up of homosexual individuals influences how this population may be seen or treated by the public and government bodies.
Voeller generalized this finding and used it as part of the modern gay rights movement to convince politicians and the public that "we [gays and lesbians] are everywhere". In the paper "Who's Gay? Does It Matter? To measure attraction and arousal he proposed that biological measures should be developed and used. Secondly, Savin-Williams suggests that researchers should forsake the general notion of sexual orientation altogether and assess only those components that are relevant to the research question being investigated.
For example:. Means typically used include surveys, interviews, cross-cultural studies, physical arousal measurements  sexual behavior, sexual fantasy, or a pattern of erotic arousal. Studying human sexual arousal has proved a fruitful way of understanding how men and women differ as genders and in terms of sexual orientation.
A clinical measurement may use penile or vaginal photoplethysmography , where genital engorgement with blood is measured in response to exposure to different erotic material. Some researchers who study sexual orientation argue that the concept may not apply similarly to men and women.
A study of sexual arousal patterns  found that women, when viewing erotic films which show female-female, male-male and male-female sexual activity oral sex or penetration , have patterns of arousal which do not match their declared sexual orientations as well as men's. That is, heterosexual and lesbian women's sexual arousal to erotic films do not differ significantly by the genders of the participants male or female or by the type of sexual activity heterosexual or homosexual.
On the contrary, men's sexual arousal patterns tend to be more in line with their stated orientations, with heterosexual men showing more penis arousal to female-female sexual activity and less arousal to female-male and male-male sexual stimuli, and homosexual and bisexual men being more aroused by films depicting male-male intercourse and less aroused by other stimuli.
Another study on men and women's patterns of sexual arousal confirmed  that men and women have different patterns of arousal, independent of their sexual orientations.
The study found that women's genitals become aroused to both human and nonhuman stimuli from movies showing humans of both genders having sex heterosexual and homosexual and from videos showing non-human primates bonobos having sex. Men did not show any sexual arousal to non-human visual stimuli, their arousal patterns being in line with their specific sexual interest women for heterosexual men and men for homosexual men.
These studies suggest that men and women are different in terms of sexual arousal patterns and that this is also reflected in how their genitals react to sexual stimuli of both genders or even to non-human stimuli. Sexual orientation has many dimensions attractions, behavior , identity , of which sexual arousal is the only product of sexual attractions which can be measured at present with some degree of physical precision.
Thus, the fact that women are aroused by seeing non-human primates having sex does not mean that women's sexual orientation includes this type of sexual interest. Some researchers argue that women's sexual orientation depends less on their patterns of sexual arousal than men's and that other components of sexual orientation like emotional attachment must be taken into account when describing women's sexual orientations.
In contrast, men's sexual orientations tend to be primarily focused on the physical component of attractions and, thus, their sexual feelings are more exclusively oriented according to sex. More recently, scientists have started to focus on measuring changes in brain activity related to sexual arousal, by using brain-scanning techniques.
A study on how heterosexual and homosexual men's brains react to seeing pictures of naked men and women has found  that both hetero- and homosexual men react positively to seeing their preferred sex, using the same brain regions. The only significant group difference between these orientations was found in the amygdala , a brain region known to be involved in regulating fear. Social systems such as religion, language and ethnic traditions can have a powerful impact on realization of sexual orientation.
Influences of culture may complicate the process of measuring sexual orientation. The majority of empirical and clinical research on LGBT populations are done with largely white, middle-class, well-educated samples, however there are pockets of research that document various other cultural groups, although these are frequently limited in diversity of gender and sexual orientation of the subjects.
Individuals may or may not consider their sexual orientation to define their sexual identity , as they may experience various degrees of fluidity of sexuality ,  or may simply identify more strongly with another aspect of their identity such as family role. American culture puts a great emphasis on individual attributes, and views the self as unchangeable and constant. In contrast, East Asian cultures put a great emphasis on a person's social role within social hierarchies, and view the self as fluid and malleable.
Translation is a major obstacle when comparing different cultures. Many English terms lack equivalents in other languages, while concepts and words from other languages fail to be reflected in the English language. Language can also be used to signal sexual orientation to others. Other words may pick up new layers or meaning.
One person may presume knowledge of another person's sexual orientation based upon perceived characteristics, such as appearance, clothing, tone of voice, and accompaniment by and behavior with other people. The attempt to detect sexual orientation in social situations is known as gaydar ; some studies have found that guesses based on face photos perform better than chance.
Perceived sexual orientation may affect how a person is treated. In Euro-American cultures, sexual orientation is defined by the gender s of the people a person is romantically or sexually attracted to.
Euro-American culture generally assumes heterosexuality, unless otherwise specified. Cultural norms, values, traditions and laws facilitate heterosexuality,  including constructs of marriage and family. In this distinction, the passive role is typically associated with femininity or inferiority, while the active role is typically associated with masculinity or superiority. While men who consistently occupied the passive role were recognized as a distinct group by locals, men who have sex with only women, and men who have sex with women and men, were not differentiated.
In the United States, non-Caucasian LGBT individuals may find themselves in a double minority, where they are neither fully accepted or understood by mainly Caucasian LGBT communities, nor are they accepted by their own ethnic group. Sexuality in the context of religion is often a controversial subject, especially that of sexual orientation. In the past, various sects have viewed homosexuality from a negative point of view and had punishments for same-sex relationships.
In modern times, an increasing number of religions and religious denominations accept homosexuality. It is possible to integrate sexual identity and religious identity, depending on the interpretation of religious texts.
Some religious organizations object to the concept of sexual orientation entirely. In the revision of the code of ethics of the American Association of Christian Counselors, members are forbidden to "describe or reduce human identity and nature to sexual orientation or reference," even while counselors must acknowledge the client's fundamental right to self-determination. The internet has influenced sexual orientation in two ways: it is a common mode of discourse on the subject of sexual orientation and sexual identity, and therefore shapes popular conceptions;  and it allows anonymous attainment of sexual partners, as well as facilitates communication and connection between greater numbers of people.
The multiple aspects of sexual orientation and the boundary-drawing problems already described create methodological challenges for the study of the demographics of sexual orientation. Determining the frequency of various sexual orientations in real-world populations is difficult and controversial.
Modern scientific surveys find that the majority of people report a heterosexual orientation. Most of these statistical findings are in the range of 2. Estimates for the percentage of the population that are bisexual vary widely, at least in part due to differing definitions of bisexuality.
Some studies only consider a person bisexual if they are nearly equally attracted to both sexes, and others consider a person bisexual if they are at all attracted to the same sex for otherwise mostly heterosexual persons or to the opposite sex for otherwise mostly homosexual persons. A small percentage of people are not sexually attracted to anyone asexuality. Kinsey et al. Kinsey reported that when the individuals' behavior as well as their identity are analyzed, a significant number of people appeared to be at least somewhat bisexual — i.
However, only a small minority can be considered fully bisexual with an equal attraction to both sexes. Kinsey's methods have been criticized as flawed, particularly with regard to the randomness of his sample population, which included prison inmates, male prostitutes and those who willingly participated in discussion of previously taboo sexual topics.
Nevertheless, Paul Gebhard , subsequent director of the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research , reexamined the data in the Kinsey Reports and concluded that removing the prison inmates and prostitutes barely affected the results. Because sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers, especially in queer studies , have argued that it is a historical and social construction.
In , philosopher and historian Michel Foucault argued in The History of Sexuality that homosexuality as an identity did not exist in the eighteenth century; that people instead spoke of "sodomy," which referred to sexual acts.
Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored, but sometimes punished severely see sodomy law. He wrote, "'Sexuality' is an invention of the modern state, the industrial revolution, and capitalism. Sexual orientation is argued as a concept that evolved in the industrialized West, and there is a controversy as to the universality of its application in other societies or cultures.
Heterosexuality and homosexuality are terms often used in European and American cultures to encompass a person's entire social identity, which includes self and personality [ citation needed ]. In Western cultures, some people speak meaningfully of gay, lesbian, and bisexual identities and communities. In other cultures, homosexuality and heterosexual labels do not emphasize an entire social identity or indicate community affiliation based on sexual orientation.
Some historians and researchers [ who? For example, in many English-speaking nations, it is assumed that same-sex kissing, particularly between men, is a sign of homosexuality, whereas various types of same-sex kissing are common expressions of friendship in other nations.
Also, many modern and historic cultures have formal ceremonies expressing long-term commitment between same-sex friends, even though homosexuality itself is taboo within the cultures. Two researchers, raising 'serious doubt whether sexual orientation is a valid concept at all,' warned against increasing politicization of this area. Professor Michael King stated, "The conclusion reached by scientists who have investigated the origins and stability of sexual orientation is that it is a human characteristic that is formed early in life, and is resistant to change.
Scientific evidence on the origins of homosexuality is considered relevant to theological and social debate because it undermines suggestions that sexual orientation is a choice. Legally as well, a person's sexual orientation is hard to establish as either an intrinsic or a binary quality.
In , law professor David Cruz wrote that "sexual orientation and the related concept homosexuality might plausibly refer to a variety of different attributes, singly or in combination. What is not immediately clear is whether one conception is most suited to all social, legal, and constitutional purposes.
Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the book, see Sexual Preference book. See also: Sexual identity , Human sexual activity , and Situational sexual behavior.
Main article: Androphilia and gynephilia. Rodriguez Rust . Main article: Sexual fluidity. Main article: Biology and sexual orientation. Main article: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation.